On Tuesday, Republicans gained a majority in the House, picking up at least 60 seats with several more races remaining too close to call. Republicans also picked up 6 seats in the Senate but fell short of gaining the majority. MLA’s client advisory on the election results is available here. What impact might the significant Republican gains in the Congress have on developments in labor law?
The widely held consensus suggests that the most ambitious proposed piece of labor legislation – the Employee Free Choice Act – is “dead.” The Las Vegas Journal Review was quick to celebrate this notion in an op-ed “Card Check: R.I.P.” Of course, there had been no chance that the bill was going to pass in its original incarnation as early as March of last year. The bill, most recently introduced as H.R. 1409, S. 560, would would amend the National Labor Relations Act to make it easier for unions to organize employees. The bill would also require interest arbitration of first contracts after 120 days and would strengthen penalties for certain unfair labor practices.
The card-check provisions, however, faced vocal opposition from Republican and moderate Democrat Senators alike – failing to obtain enough votes for cloture even when the Democratic caucus controlled 60 votes in the Senate. It is unlikely that there will be enough votes to pass the bill again in the House (as was done in 2008) – especially since, as of this time, at least forty-five co-sponsors of H.R.1409 will no longer be serving in the 112th Congress.
There have also been measures introduced to guarantee the availability of the secret ballot in union representation elections. Tuesday, four states passed initiatives to that effect. These measures will face stiff Court challenges on the grounds of federal preemption of labor law. But last year, federal legislation was also introduced as a bar to EFCA’s card-check provisions. The Secret Ballot Protection Act (H.R. 1176, S. 478) would make it unlawful for an employer
to recognize or bargain collectively with a labor organization that has not been selected by a majority of such employees in a secret ballot election conducted by the National Labor Relations Board in accordance with section 9 [of the NLRA].
The bill was introduced in the 111th Congress by Rep. John Kline (R-MN) -- the ranking member of the House Committee on Education and Labor. Consistent with our earlier speculation, this week Rep. Kline expressed his interest in chairing that Committee in the Republican-controlled House. It is unlikely that his chairmanship and the Republican House majority alone will be sufficient to see legislation like this pass, particularly in light of the Democratic Senate and Presidential veto, but it may be enough to take the issue of card check recognition off the table either way during any legislative discussions.
Since this split government will make major legislative initiatives difficult, it is entirely likely that we will continue to see changes advanced by administrative and executive action. Early in this administration, the White House showed a willingness to advance elements of its labor agenda via the issuance of executive orders. Moreover, the new National Labor Relations Board, with a weighted 3-to-1 Democrat tilt, has already been more aggressive – urging the increased use of preliminary injunctive relief, significantly expanding traditional Board remedies and granting review in cases expected to invite reversals of Board precedent. We may reasonably expect these trends – as well as an increase in administrative rule-making power – to continue. During the next few weeks, we will explore these issues here in further detail.